Sunday, March 31, 2019
The Visionary And Inspirational drawship Styles Commerce EssayThe destination leading ignore be defined as influencing the activities of an organized concourse in its efforts towards coating setting and goal pass onment (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004, p.716). Leadership demeanors for that apprehension acts as a mean of penury since employees ar break awaying jointly with management through delegation and empowerment. Consequently, modes in which employees atomic number 18 managed puzzle an effect on their ability, penury and attentiveness. Motivation is indeed defined as deprivationing to do approximatelything or wanting to achieve a certain(prenominal) import (Thompson and Machin, 2003, p.154). In my perception, motivation within a workforce is afterwards valuable given that it helps to increase productivity along with output over a period of time helping to meet transaction objectives.With origin to everlasting(a) a multinational company established by R ic terrible Branson, his fashion of leadership is shown to entail certain characteristics in relation to the question perceive in all enterprises argon linked by the single powerful fundamental image of the founder and the characteristic red livery (Mullins, 2010, p.37). Styles of management consequently ar shown to influence motivation and perceptions within a workforce. Branson agency is frankincense exposed to motivate eventide though Virgin pays staff with unhopeful salaries, employees within Virgin complete work to a high archetype to the extent employees be important projectors of the sword image. The suggestion of conjuror, sacred and participative style can therefore be considered as crucial in motivating workforces in achieving their goals and in giving a dependable corporate reflection.A participative style of leadership is directed towards democratic management whereby managers permit workers to signalise in views or ideas transversely before making la sts. From experience, this attends essential in motivating depending on the type of organisation, here employees participate in the decision making process and spirit part of the progression. According to Billsberry J this style can thus lead to better quality decisions which are past more legally implemented autocratic whitethorn stiffly creativity, not use available expertise and fail to establish motivation and loading (1996 p.43). Having a signified of entered ideas can add towards job satisfaction and go away management to listen to workers views and ideas. In good judgment, it is seen to enhance and increase motivation as workers enjoy work through a logic instinct of contri thation which is an intrinsic source of motivation (motivation from inside the individual). In addition, when I was working within a restaurant as a waitress, we were managed in an autocratic route, where everyone was given instructions on what tasks to per course of study without having any insigh ts on decisions. In my opinion this was fundamental to motivate me as I knew what to do and what was expected of me, whereas the idea of participative would mean I wouldnt be propel as in person I am motivated by factors such as rewards e.g. cash. In a situation where crucial decisions needed to be made, for suit when lots of customers came in, decisions are made quicker than being participative as this s depressive disorders set ashore the business through consultation making it inflexible for management and patrons. De-motivation could therefore take place as customers may complain possibly having an jar on employees in the sense jobs arent done well. The reason why workers are motivated then depends on the type of organisation the business is. at heart Virgin it could be viewed being participative is appropriate because of the nature of the industry. For instance, management at Virgin Atlantic and their cabin bunch are there to be helpful and welcoming, a participative sty le could motivate as cabin man are an important feature as well as thought part of Virgin.Virgin shows aspect of a participative manner seeing that Branson state I gather in to be good at helping concourse run the individual businesses, and I pee-pee to be willing to mensuration back. The company must be set up so it can continue without me (McDermott, 2010). By stepping back and encouraging participation workers would life ego-reliance is being implemented upon them, effectively this could individually motivate as they feel valued. A sense of involvement also devises employees feel they are modify to Virgins success. Nevertheless, although ideas are shared, management may not take any form of action to each proposal as workers have various views as well as it being difficult to implement all ideas.In planning for the organisational behaviour event (group activity) we had a participative style to which everyone contributed on what we were passing game to do. This leader ship style was good in the sense members coming up with several ideas, during the process however I felt this caused some small confusion as during the night part of the group didnt turn up, which could be reference to the range of ideas recommended. In improving the event, we should have assigned a leader with more direct control over the group this for me would have motivated me more as fewer mistakes are made in relation to more control, though other people may prefer a participative style.An early idea on motivation in the nineteenth century was by Frederick Taylor who was a believer in the rational sparing concept of motivation workers would be motivated by obtaining the highest possible engage (Mullins L, 2007, pg.43). An inspirational and visionary style may well be undermined in motivating as Frederick Taylor states workers are only motivated by specie and it is a managers job to tell employees what to do. In supporting his judgment Taylor did an prove with a group of workers linking altered factors with output, drawing up the conclusion money is linked to higher(prenominal) output. In this sense money could be seen as a vital way for motivating if workers work harder and produce higher production, higher pay would be rewarded as a result, making employees achieve a set target. A participative, visionary and inspirational leadership is thus unessential in motivating workforces as in Taylors observation employees are motivated by monetary rewards. Incorporating Taylors concept within Virgin could conversely motivate staff, as employees like high pay linked to performance. extract the negative aspect is quality of service may be change as not all workers are liable to be motivated by money and would want visions along with inspirations to motivate. As a result if workers are unhappy the Virgin brand may be pretentious as Virgin cabin crew are an important projector of the brand image. Although scientific management is viewed as outdated and has been criticised for being excessively bureaucratic towards workers and the lack of flexibility involved, many organisations still use this as a mean of motivation as workers are motivated by alien factors such as reward, which I personally am motivated by partially.Visionary leadership involves having clear goals, being sensitive to stakeholder ineluctably and interests and inspire them with passion and determination (Buchanan and Huczynski 2010 p.609). Richard Branson is disputed to have implemented visionary within virgin as he provides goals to employees on what Virgin is accomplishing, Virgin Records and Virgin Atlantic stated corporations should put their employees ahead of customers and shareholders to build sustainable businesses (Rex Mathew 18 November 2005), giving visions that Virgin couldnt be successful without its employee, so would motivate as workers feel appreciated and have the visions to work towards their goals. In effect visions seem to bring about confidence on the part of employees, confidence that instils in them a belief that they are capable of performing to their full potence (Bennis and Goldsmith, 1997, p.108). By having clear goals employees feel motivated as they will sleep with what is expected of them as well as what they are capable of. In this sense visions are essential in bringing out the best(p) within employees. According to Nanus Vision, if properly selected and implemented, is so energizing that it in effect jump starts the future by calling forth the skills, talents and resources to make it happen (Robbins, 2003 p.344). When applying idea of visions to my employment, this generally would motivate me as having a sense of direction makes me feel determined to achieve a certain goal set. For example, if my manager gave visions about sense of direction and where they are heading with extravagance this would inspire me to work harder to fulfil the satisfaction we may gain by accomplishing something. Just by managers st ating their goals and the strategic action to achieve them would be a sense of vision personally.Inspirational in an organisation is a perceived importance as an online journal titled, The Role of Inspirational Leadership in Geographically Dispersed Teams the positive relationship between inspirational leadership and individuals commitment to the team and trust in team members was strengthened in teams that were more dispersed suggesting that inspirational leaders are important in all contexts but that their importance is underscored in highly dispersed contexts (Joshi, A, Lazarova, M. Liao, H, 2009). This illustrates inspirational leadership is vital during motivating as management relationship are strengthen with employees to feel appreciated by the company, making workers work hard in giving something back. In my view, by being motivated workers are more satisfied producing quality services and products which can be show at Virgin. Furthermore according to a survey conducted by the lease management institute The power to inspire is rated highest and desirable leadership qualities. The inspirational leader connects with the led, appreciates the capabilities of others and through trust will unlock the power in others (Mullins 2005 p. 304).In context, inspirational can motivate as when working in a group for my marketing presentation it was the inspirations of the group and the connection that motivated me personally as we had to work together to achieve a fine publicise campaign. Having inspirations from individuals motivated me to work harder as we all strived to achieve a good end result of the advertising campaign giving me self satisfaction.A participative, visionary and inspirational style of leadership isnt necessarily essential in motivating, for example a content scheme of motivation is Maslows hierarchy of postu novel what motivates the individual. Workers need to satisfy their basic physiological need such as pay and condition, individuals wou ld then work towards each level to gain self satisfaction in the form of motivation. When applying this conjecture to Virgin, the strength of Maslows scheme is individuals have basic needs so applies to the majority. In theory, this resonance an effective way to motivate staff within Virgin as employees could fulfil their needs slowly working towards self actualization, for example a cabin crew may work hard to gain promotion. Yet, when applying Maslows theory into perpetrate, it could be a difficult process as different people have diverse needs as well as the theory being too simplistic, which may be hard to apply within an organisation. If this presumption was employ to my job, it wouldnt really work for me as it isnt a job I want to be in for a time period, therefore I wouldnt work to self actualization but personally money, as a result, some levels would motivate me in the short term though not in the long term in future a job that motivates me personally is something of int erest to me.In talking about motivation, the kind-hearted relations theory can be shown to motivate in regard to leadership styles. The human relation theory has its heredity in the Hawthorne study conducted in the late 1920s and into the early 30s by Elton Mayo employees were now accepted as having social needs and interests, not as being motivated machines ideate by Taylor. The suggestion of participative, visionary and inspirational style of leadership is essential to effectively motivate the workforce can then be deduced as Elton Mayo experiment showed having an interest in workers boosted their motivation level even if it was only changing lighting settings, it also outlines importance of teamwork in an organisation. When applying this theory into Virgin, the repercussion shows employees would be motivated in the lecture a characterization was shown when Richard Branson visited his stores which he talks to employees and takes an interest in them, in return employees are more motivated as Virgin pays staff with a low wage, however staff produces work to a high standard to the tier it is a valuable brand name in society.In conclusion, participative, visionary and inspirational is seen to effectively motivate, however because of convolution in different organisations and ship canal in employees are organised/ managed other methods are shown to motivate as alternatives to leadership styles. If Virgin were to adapt the characteristic as stated, the outcome may be a quantity of employees will perhaps not feel as motivated in comparison as all workers are different. The theories of motivation are thus dissimilar to management in practice a theory may sound good in principle, but when applying to organisations there will be issues arising such as employees having different needs and because of this are motivated by different aspects. In addition, not all motivation of employees is to be achieved because of dissimilar desires. Businesses therefore need to cons ider employee motivation as an important process in achieving their objectives.MODULE FEEDBACK FORM indite listBennis W and Goldsmith J. (1997) Learning to lead, page 108Billsberry J (ed.) (1996) The effective manager perspectives and illustrations, page 43Buchanan and Huczynski (2004) administrational behaviour an introductory text, ordinal edition, page716Buchanan and Huczynski (2010) Organizational behaviour, 7th edition, page609Joshi A, Lazarova M Liao H (2009) Getting Everyone on circuit board The Role of Inspirational Leadership in Geographically Dispersed Teams. Organization Science, 20(1), 240-252. OnlineRetrieved from Business Source Complete database, on hand(predicate) from http//web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=1hid=8sid=5fb20d14-bd45-4d39-8de5-204dcc9235f8%40sessionmgr14bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=bthAN=36606878db=bthAN=36606878 Last accessed 5th Nov 2010Mathew R (2005) Put employees first Sir Richard Branson. Available http//www.domain-b.com/people/in_ the_news/20051118_richard_branson.html Last accessed 13th Dec 2010McDermott, F (ed.) (2010) To be a Leader lessons from Richard Branson and Jesus Christ. Available http//mcdermottsmiscellany.blogspot.com/search/label/Richard%20Branson. Last accessed 4th Nov 2010Mullins L. (2005) Management and organisational behaviour, seventh edition, page 304Mullins L. (2007) Management and organisational behaviour, eighth edition, page 43Mullins L. (2010) Management and organisational behaviour, 9th edition, page 37Robbins S. (ed.) (2003) Organizational behaviour, tenth edition, page 344Thompson and Machin (2003) AS business studies, page 154
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Investment Report on Qantas AirlinesIntroductionQantas main worldwide hubs argon at Sydney and Melbourne airport, as comfortably as operates a epoch- reservation number of international flights. Qantas owns Jetstar Airways and when it became privatised in 1993, became one of the most gainable air ducts in the world.Qantas has a total of 299 aircrafts and 29,350 employees as of 2015, and its closest competitor is Singapore Airlines (SIA). Qantas object is to be the worlds best airline, providing travel experiences and putting safety graduation exercise at all times. Since 2006, Qantas has saved over 2.5 million tonnes of century emission through with(predicate) its Qantas Future Planet Program. This is Qantass program for their sustainability, environmental and t finisher initiatives.In 2008, Qantas logical 20 A380s, and using Required Navigation motion and air concern management, helped to save thousands of kilograms of carbon emission. In 2012, Qantas won an award for se tting the normal for large organisations and has won another 3 awards till date.Financial/ economic PerformanceTable 1.0 General schooling on QantasFinancial Information and analysis of QantasThis portion of the report aims to depart relevant financial information, analytic thinking and the advanceability of Qantas. This report also compares between Qantas and SIA to provide a oftentimes in depth evaluation on the gainfulness of Qantas. advanceability Analysis of QantasAs seen in Table 1.0, Qantas had a negative afford on assets (ROA), go on equity ( roe), as well as profit margin. According to Max Mason (2014), the statutory release does not salute a cash loss to the company, rather it is a paper loss in the value of its assets. However, in 2015, Qantas make a comeback and made an increase of 26%. Moreover, Qantas made an 83% increase in re takings on equity (ROE) and their profit margin increased by 31%. This shows that Qantass negative ratios were most probably ca enforced by lack of customers wanting to travel.ROA measures the return earned by management through operations as well as reflects the result of the entitys ability to convert sales gross into profit.ROE measures the rate of return on the capital invested by shareholders. A free burning game ROE attracts new competitors to the industry and eventually erodes excess ROE.Profit margin is a measure of profitability. It is used to see the net profit as a percentage of the revenue. liquid state AnalysisTable 1.1 Liquidity Analysis of QantasWhen calculating contemporary ratio, it is best if the ratio is 1 or more than 1. Most plenty regard a current ratio that is little than 1, as a company that is facing insolvency. While Qantas in this case has a ratio of less than 1, it is still comforting to spang that their assets still contain enough cash and receivables, and one of the non-current liabilities contains revenue receive in advance. Although it is unearned, when the amount rec eived is earned, it will be credited accordingly.2.3 gainfulness Ratios Between Qantas and SIATable 1.3 Profitability Ratios between Qantas and SIATable 1.4 Qantas and SIA Financial story 20152.3.1 ROA equation Between Qantas and SIAEarnings Before Interest and Tax (EBIT) shows the clams pictured by the company, ignoring tax and debt. A high EBIT would mean that the company is both(prenominal) earning a high revenue or have low expenses. As seen in Table 1.4, although the revenue earned is about the same, SIAs expenditure is higher, then resulting in a deject EBIT. Adding on to that, SIAs asset is higher than Qantas, frankincense resulting in a lower ROA.The ROA shows that Qantas is able to convert sales revenue into profit better than SIA as well as better at gene order income from its asset investments. Moreover, this translates into efficiency in using its resources so as to generate a good return for investors.2.3.2 ROE Comparison Between Qantas and SIAAs seen from Tabl e 1.4, Qantas NPAT is higher than SIA, which translates into Qantas being better at earning a return on the equity provided to them. That sewer be seen from the amount of equity both companies have. For SIA, this is what we call a capital funded company. A capital funded company relies on investment from shareholders to operate and for SIA, it is shown that they are not making full use of their investments to enable a good return to their investors.2.3.3 Profit Margin Comparison Between Qantas and SIAProfit margin is a ratio used to calculate a companys financial performance. Commonly, a low profit margin would presage lower sales than other companies in the industry. As seen from Table 1.3 and 1.4, Qantas has nearly the same revenue, but a higher profit margin than SIA, which could call for that they are cost conscious, therefore have less expenditure.Social Performance of QantasCorporate Social Responsibility (CSR), is a form of self-regulation that companies engage in, to pro vide some social good, beyond the interests of the firm, regulators and environmental protection groups. By undertaking CSR, companies are able to r apiece out to consumers trust through tyrannical public relations and encourage the company to make an impact on the environment and stakeholders. Qantas partners with organisations such as Make-A-Wish, e-motion21, Mardi Gras and UNICEF to promote a positive change.3.1 Make-A-Wish AustraliaQantas is the formal airline of Make-A-Wish Australia, an organisation that grants beseeches to children with life threatening illnesses. Since 1985, over 8000 wishes had been granted and since 2008, the Qantas excogitation has donated over $5.7 million for charitable causes in Australia. Qantas also helped fulfil the wish of a boy, with stage 4 Wilms tumour, who wanted to be a wing by bringing him to a plane simulator as well as showed him around the workings of a plane.3.2 E.motion21E.motion21 is a non-profit organisation that aims to improve the lives of people with down syndrome through dance, fitness and performance. As a corporate partner, Qantas back up the organisation by sending 18 dancers and their families to South Africa for the World imbibe Syndrome Congress and even gave Lauren Potter a surp rustle serenade when she fey down in Australia.3.3 Mardi GrasAlso known as the Sydney alert and homosexual Mardi Gras in Australia, its a parade to celebrate Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) pride. As a major partner of the parade, Qantas celebrates the spirit of diversity by having their own Gay 380 float. Qantas is also a Gay-Friendly airline, with non-stop flights to Australia and New Zealand, countries with a thriving LGBT community.3.4 UNICEFProviding humanitarian service to children and mothers in developing countries, UNICEF is a non-profit organisation that relies on government and underground funding. UNICEF partnered with Qantas to create the Change for Good program, where Qantas passengers u nwanted spare change were collect and donated to UNICEF for the purpose of providing textbooks for education or protecting children from diseases. This concept has helped raise at least $28 million over the past 23 years.environmental Performance of QantasQantas takes initiative in protecting the environment on both land and air, and has partnerships that promote sustainability and conservation. The most important initiative would be in the air, where planes are frequently releasing emissions that slowly harms the ozone layer. Since 2007, Qantas has been reducing harmful emissions, making them one of the industry leaders in environmental protection. As of 2014, Qantas managed to turn off electricity consumption by 9%, water consumption by 11% and landfill by 20%. To reach their 2020 target, Qantas has been using Sustainable line Fuel (SAF), investing in fuel efficiency, flying carbon neutral, and recycling. On the ground, Qantas protects the environment indirectly by using natura l fuck up for their headquarter as well as a drop-off in utilities used.4.1 In the Air4.1.1 Sustainable Aviation FuelSAF is now in its assist generation and currently, 2% of global emissions come from aviation and is expected to rise to 3% by 2050. Although solar, electric and hydrogen aircrafts are being researched on now, it is still more feasible to use SAF due to aviations need for high power-to-weight ratio.In 2012, Qantas was the first Australian airline to use SAF to operate a commercial flight and have partnered with Shell Australia and the government to explore the production of SAF in Australia. In a study conducted with industry partners, findings have shown that SAF can result in the creation of 12,000 clean energy jobs, a 17% reduction in emissions and a $2 billion reduction in the reliance of oil imports.4.1.2 Fuel Efficiency ProgramIn new years, Qantas has phased out old airplanes and purchased newer ones that are equipped with the latest technology and engines. or so of the airplanes include the Airbus A380, Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A320 neo. Other methods of fuel efficiency would include weight reduction by investing in lighter equipment or adjusting the amount of man-portable water the plane carries based on passenger needs and celestial sphere length.4.1.3 Flying Carbon deaf(p)Since the launch of the Fly Carbon Neutral program in 2007, Qantas has managed to offset over 1.8 million tonnes of carbon. Carbon offsetting in business terms, is the purchasing of carbon credits to enable businesses to compensate for their carbon emissions. For Qantas, not only do they offset their employees carbon footprint, but each time a customer flies on Qantas, they can tell apart to offset their share of carbon emissions. In other words, you contribute a sum of money equivalent to your carbon footprint and Qantas will use that contribution to fund carbon offset projects that provides genuine, lasting environmental and social benefits.Qantas d oes not earn from the contribution and Fly Carbon Neutral is the largest airline offset program in the world. Qantass carbon offset projects include, protecting the Tasmanias wilderness, empowering rain forest communities, improving Cambodian air quality and protectingallow the Peruvian amazon.4.1.4 RecyclingQantas was the first Australian airline to introduce inflight recycling and has since recycled 390 tonnes of paper and 200 tonnes of nursing bottle per year. Qantas takes recycling very seriously and pushes their suppliers to produce more sustainable products and less packaging. For example, currently, all the paper cups provided on board are made from 35% recycled paper.Qantas also tries to get their customers to join in to save the environment by assisting the cabin crew to separate the recyclable items for collection.4.2 On the Ground4.2.1 Tri genesis Projects and Campus RedevelopmentQantas reconstructed their headquarters by building Australias largest tri-generation proj ect in Sydney. The system allows cooling, heating and electricity by using natural gas as the fuel so as to produce more efficient, lower carbon energy for the headquarters, catering centre, jet base and domestic terminal.The end result would be a reduction of 23,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions per year, an equivalent of taking 7,000 cars off the road. It will also raise the energy efficiency rating from a NABERS 1.5 star to NABERS 5 star.4.2.2 Utilities ReductionIn order to chance upon their water and electricity targets, Qantas purchased LED lights to improve lighting efficiency as well as procuring energy efficient appliances. Rectification of water leaks and initiation water efficient fixtures was done as well.ConclusionAlthough low current ratio was seen, I would recommend anyone to invest in Qantas as the profitability ratios show a more than significant improvement between 2014 and 2015. This is much more evident when compared to SIA, another top leading airline in t he world. Moreover, Qantas engages in various environmental and social aspects to make sure they are a well-recognised company.Reference list
Data junior-grade Management System In An OrganizationA selective in chance variableationbase wariness corpse Database Management System is a commercial softw be program utilise to ascendancy, manipulate and maintain the Database by enabling intakers to admittance, barge in, organize, modify, retrieve, secure and provide impartiality of cultivation in a entropybase.A DBMS accepts request from users or lotions and instructs the operating scheme to transfer the appropriate entropy as shown in the diagram below.Figure 1 selective informationbase wariness(Source http//broncu.blogspot.com/2010/04/dbms-mysql.html)Wikipedia (2011) defines Database Management System as a set of computer programs that looks the creation, maintenance, and the use of a database. It allows arrangings to place control of database development in the hands of database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A DBMS is a system softwargon package that patrons the use of integrated collection o f data records and shows known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database.DBMSs whitethorn use any of a variety of database models, much(prenominal) as the net dally model or relative model. In hulky systems, a DBMS allows users and other softw ar to store and retrieve data in a bodily structured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to commit information, user better go on ask simple questions in a wonder language. Thus, many another(prenominal) DBMS packages provide Fourth-generation programming language (4GLs) and other application development features. It helps to specify the logical organization for a database and access and use the information within a database. It provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency, and restoring the database from backups. A DBMS also provides the ability to logically contribute database information to users.ExamplesMicros oft Access, My SQL, Microsoft SQL horde, vaticinator and FileMaker pro are all examples of database focussing systems. (Wikipedia, 2011).Microsoft AccessMicrosoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft jet database Engine with a graphical user interface and software package-development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications, included in the Professional and high editions or sold separately. In mid-May 2010, the current version Microsoft Access 2010 was released by Microsoft in Office 2010 Microsoft Office Access 2007 was the prior version.My SQLMySQL is a relational database management system that safaris as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. It is named after developer Michael Widenius daughter, my. The SQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language.Microsoft SQL ServerMicrosoft SQL Server is a relational mo del database server lay downd by Microsoft. Its primary oppugn languages are T-SQL and ANSI S SQL.OracleThe Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.FileMaker ProFileMaker Pro is a cross-platform relational database application from FileMaker Inc., formerly Claris, a ancillary of Apple Inc. It integrates a database engine with a GUI- base interface, allowing users to modify the database by drag new elements into layouts, screens, or forms.AdvantagesSingh (2009) illustrates advantages and disadvantages of DBMS. A true DBMS offers several advantages over file processing. The principal advantages of a DBMS are the followings Flexibility Because programs and data are independent, programs do not convey to be modified when types of uncorrelated data are added to or deleted from the database, or when physical computer reposition changes. disru ptive solvent to information requests Because data are integrated into a undivided database, complex requests can be handled much much rapidly so if the data were located in separate, non-integrated files. In many melodic linees, faster response means better customer service. Multiple access Database software allows data to be accessed in a variety of ways ( much(prenominal) as finished various key fields) and often, by using several programming languages (both 3GL and nonprocedural 4GL programs). dispirit user training costs Users often find it easier to learn such systems and training costs whitethorn be reduced. Also, the total time interpreted to process requests may be shorter, which would increase user productivity. Less storage Theoretically, all occurrences of data items need be stored only once, on that pointby eliminating the storage of redundant data. System developers and database practiceers often use data normalization to minify data redundancy.Warehouse of information, where large data can be stored. overbearing storage meaning data can be stored in the form of tables.Change of schema meaning it is not platform dependent tables can be edited to add new mavens without hampering the applications.No language habituation meaning use of various languages on various platforms.Table joins meaning data can be in two or much tables and can be put into one table this enables easy retrieval of data.Data security meaning DBMS secures all your data.The data license and expeditious access of dataEasy in data face or data management.Provides concurrent access, recovers the data from the crashes.DisadvantagesA database system for the most part provides on-line access to the database for many users. In contrast, a conventional system is often designed to meet a specific need and and so generally provides access to only a small number of users. Because of the bigger number of users accessing the data when a database is apply, the green ligh t may involve redundant risks as compared to a conventional data processing system in the following areas.Confidentiality, privacy and security.Data quality.Data integrity.Enterprise vulnerability may be higher.The cost of using DBMS.Confidentiality, Privacy and tributeWhen information is centralized and is made available to users from remote locations, the possibilities of abuse are often more than in a conventional data processing system. To reduce the chances of unauthorised users accessing sensitive information, it is necessary to take technical, administrative and, possibly, legal measures.Most databases store valuable information that must be protected against deliberate trespass and destruction.Data QualitySince the database is accessible to users remotely, adequate controls are needed to control users updating data and to control data quality. With increased number of users accessing data directly, there are enormous opportunities for users to damage the data. Unless th ere are sufficient controls, the data quality may be compromised.Data IntegritySince a large number of users could be using a database concurrently, technical safeguards are necessary to ensure that the data remain correct during operation. The main little terror to data integrity comes from several different users attempting to update the same data at the same time. The database therefore demand to be protected against accidental changes by the users.Enterprise VulnerabilityCentralising all data of an opening move in one database may mean that the database becomes an indispensible resource. The survival of the enterprise may depend on reliable information being available from its database. The enterprise therefore becomes vulnerable to the destruction of the database or to unauthorised modification of the database.The represent of using a DBMSConventional data processing systems are typically designed to run a number of well-defined, pre-planned processes. Such systems are oft en tuned to run businesslikely for the processes that they were designed for. Although the conventional systems are unremarkably fairly inflexible in that new applications may be sticky to fulfill and/or expensive to run, they are usually very efficient for the applications they are designed for.The database approach on the other hand provides a flexible alternative where new applications can be developed comparatively inexpensively. The flexible approach is not without its costs and one of these costs is the extra cost of running applications that the conventional system was designed for. Using standardised software is almost always less machine efficient than specialized software.Cost of hardware and software meaning having to upgrade the hardware used for file based system it is very costly.Cost of data spiritual rebirth meaning its costly to convert data of data files into database and go through to pursue database and system designers.Cost of staff training meaning or ganization has to be aid a lot of amount for the training of staff to run dms.Database damage meaning all data stored into a single file if database is damaged due to electric failure or database is corrupted on a storage media meaning all valuable data may be lost forever.It also takes a lot of time and move to get DBMS started.Benefits of a Database Management System in an organizationAs discuss by the Ezinearticles (2011), organizations often times find themselves in a dilemma on how they can effectively serve the needs of their members. At the same time, they also enter a situation wherein there is difficulty in handling data, given the sheer volume of information. more(prenominal) often than not, the results of these instances are not anything but desirable confusion, chaos, mismanagement, lost bureau by members, etc.To solve these problems, organizations turn to information technology (IT) experts for answers. With many years of experience in coming up with solutions for b usinesses and other entities, IT professionals have what it takes to come up with an effective data management and accreditation system that impart be used by organizations. thither must also be enhanced accessibility to the said system, which means that members from other locations can motionlessness gain entry into the system, regardless of elements such as time and geography. investment on the go of IT consultants is, however, not like buying something from a store. It entails farseeing sums of money to come up with a good data management and accreditation system for an organization, aside from engaging the professional services of IT experts. Fortunately, IT experts can help minimize the cost through the creation of a database system based on existing resources being held by the organization.Investing on the services of IT experts and having a good data and accreditation management system may count to be too costly, but the long-term benefits are worthy to be seen. By havin g a good database system, it will be much easier for organizations to deal with their members because of enhanced access to information. The placement of additional pieces of information can be done better if there is a good data management system.Having a good data and accreditation management system empowers members of an organization. This is possible because they have the ability to gain the necessary information about things that matter to them as members. They conduction of business with the organizations intervention is made faster and more efficient if a good data management system is in place.There is no reason for organizations to hesitate when it comes to investing on a good data and accreditation management system. The long-term benefits of having one are far greater than the costs, and will be very helpful to the organization and their members in the long run.Improved strategic use of corporate data. cut down complexity of the organizations information systems environme nt.Reduced data redundancy and inconsistency.Enhanced data integrity.Application-data independence.Improved security.Reduced application development and maintenance costs.Improved flexibility of information systems.increase access and availability of data and information.(Blurtit, 2011).Prospects in DBMS and Career OpportunitiesThe work of a database administrator (DBA) varies according to the nature of the employing organisation and the level of obligation associated with the post. The work may be pure maintenance or it may also involve specialising in database development.Prospects, the UKs official career website (2011) states that jobs available in this field areSenior Database ArchitectDatabase Architect design and builds database structure and objects that trump support operational and analytics application. Tests and debug physical database objects for performance and troubleshooting.* convention and implement optimal star and snowflake schema in the database* commune and collaborate with group members and management on the designed database structures and schemas* Write and present eloquently with the appropriate audience perspective in mind* erect troubleshooting of payoff issues of existing application as warranted* Participate in collaborative discussions with team members to monitor progress against enhancement queue and bug resolution.* bewilder proactive in identifying potential risks/issues due to the overall application design and watch recommendations.Database AdministratorThis position requires a Top Secret Security Clearance. This position will support a US Air describe Contract. The successful candidate will be responsible for planning, coordinating and administering computerized databases, including base interpretation, structure, documentation, long and short range requirements, operational guidelines, protection and logical-physical database design. Formulates and monitors policies, procedures and standards relating to datab ase management. Identifies, evaluates and recommends relevant COTS software tools. Collaborate with software engineers, security administration, computer operations, network management and system administration to ensure quality and integrity of databases, application software and data. responsible for(p) for performance monitoring, database.Database Architect SpecialistDatabase Architect design and builds database structure and objects that best support operational and analytics application. Tests and debug physical database objects for performance and troubleshooting.* Design and implement optimal star and snowflake schema in the database* Communicate and collaborate with team members and management on the designed database structures and schemas* Write and present eloquently with the appropriate audience perspective in mind* Support troubleshooting of production issues of existing application as warranted* Participate in collaborative discussions with team members to monitor pro gress against enhancement queue and bug resolution.* Stay proactive in identifying potential risks/issues due to the overall application design and make recommendations.Database Administration ConsultantEvaluates new database technologies and tools, sets database system and programming standards, applies database technology to business problems and manages the development and production database environments with emphasis on security, availability and performance. Provides database services in compliance with all audit and regulatory requirements. The ideal candidate must be experienced in the management of Oracle E-Business 188.8.131.52 including installation, upgrade, patching, cloning, backup and recovery, monitoring, tuning, security, and definition of procedures for custom development. The ideal candidate must be experienced in the implementation and management of Oracle E-Business 184.108.40.206 as configured for the Oracle wide Availability Architecture.Senior Database EngineerRespo nsible for requirements analysis, software development and installation, integration, evaluation, enhancement, maintenance, testing, and problem diagnosis and resolution. Qualifications Bachelors degree with ten (10) years experience as a Database Engineer in developing relational database software and experience with one or more relational database products. Preferred Additional Skills Possess organizational and management skills, along with the ability to respond to crises objectively. Understanding of the current database management system releases.ConclusionThe document that we have put together is a group assignment that was done by four individuals. Some of the problems that we go about as a group are that, we couldnt meet due to our clashing schedules others are busy with other obligations. We would like to say that we tried to produce the best group work that we could, hopefully learnt from this experience to better ourselves for our succeeding(a) endeavors.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Social Media and Law Enforcement EssaySocial media is beseeming occasion in everyday interactions, including being involved with disgust. While in that respect has been an development in using it to start and partake in crime, thither has excessively been an interest in using it to financial aid combat and figure crimes. at that moorage are umpteen ways considerately media stack be do to aid the law of nature, 1 is by visiting the pages which the exploiter has updated themselves to see if they experience inadvertently break teaching which could hold them accountable for received crimes by either revealing a picture or training germane(predicate) to the crime which has been committed, or nonicing a change in lifestyle as a result from the offense. These could be monitored by the natural law or direct in as a tip from a source which could manoeuvre to the crime being solved quicker than without kind media. Studies indoors the States admit the support o f the practice of law force and would like to accustom companionable media to a greater extent deep cut investigations, however overlook of education on the reduce delegacy period could be wasted by not soul the information as well as finding it. There is overly a fine line with using friendly media to find information relevant to the crime and using this irresponsibly and finding information by dint of unethical means.The public go for likewise been using genial media to religious service solve their own crimes by overdressming up interest and acquiring new(prenominal)s involved and talking near the topics to build publicity to solve a crime. These could take hold been achieved with the loss of a someone or court or by attending an event where the organisers actively promoting favorable media use to keep the peace inwardly an event. These pay back then stemmed into new(prenominal) web posts being make up ones thought up handbagd around this to help solve crimes for the future.When the customary public get hold of information regarding criminals, they mother taken it upon themselves to publicise this at heart their community to warn other the great unwashed of the dangers deep down the local area. This has had drastic effects, especi every last(predicate)y when promoting about individuals who charter served their time for crimes in the past. There have been on-going debates over whether this information has been relinquished to be disclosed and resulted in several court battles with pages from the internet being removed as the information is not theirs to disclose.Within the UK, heavy(p) scale crimes have resulted in companies compass up various pages online and d integrity social media to help solve crimes and stir safe environments. Due to this, there is already a large profit of active users who can help promote these messages and support them in trim crimes. These need to be circumscribed and adapted within the constraints of the companies, which are mostly cost based, in order for them to turn sustainable for the future in solving crimes.IntroductionIn September 2012, Facebook reached 1 billion users general (Fowler, 2012) with chitter following in second place with over viosterol million users (Herngaard, 2012). The audience, therefore, to potentially help prevent or to initiate crimes finished social media is huge and constantly growing with more(prenominal) people fall in these websites and others every day. Social media including Twitter and Facebook are a tool apply by the masses for inciting disorderly behaviour. However, as much as social media is being utilize to start antisocial behaviour, it is also being employ to try to combat these actions and be employ in a more productive and constructive way.Information Present Through Social MediaSince social media gained popularity, the public are more willing to disclose private information through these to friends or ac quaintances. On Facebook, a study undertaken in 2005 disclosed that only 0.03% of profiles investigated showed no information of value which could be use to either identify individuals or to source information about individuals (Gross Acquisti, 2005). From this, social media users enable themselves to being visible to anyone who comes across their personal page. This is also the same for Twitter users whose profile is automatically public unless the privacy settings are configured. Therefore umteen people could be unknowingly transfering personal information about themselves which could be accessed by criminals, their employers or even the Police.Trotter (2012) mentions that social media is a means for communication, but it is increasingly a source of information for the police, which is true of token cases. Certain criminals including Michael Baker from Kentucky, USA stick on a picture of himself siphoning flatulence from a Police car on Facebook which later take to his ent rance over the crime (Siu, 2012). While this case is obvious to the police that the user has committed the crime, other more subtle ways have been used such(prenominal)(prenominal) as flaunting goodies which have been stolen or bought through crime.LexisNexis (2012) investigated over 12000 law enforcement professionals and showed that 69% questioned had use social media as part of crime investigation. The main reason this is not used more thoroughly is collectible to lack of training or lack of use within purpose hours or computers. If more law enforcement professionals were able to use social media within office time, this could help officers within investigations to speed up finding information on top of what has been readily permitd, with 67% people questioned agreeing that it will solve investigations quicker. This would cut to more time during the working day to work on other investigations, and in turn solving more crimes than before.Current uses of Social Media by Polic eKeeping up with innovation, multiple local authorities within the UK, including the Metropolitan Police, are setting up Facebook pages to create awareness within the community. However, in such an early state of social media being used by the Police, many disclaimers indicate that this is not a method to herald a crime but to promote public safety and campaigns within the area. This has increased the visibility of the police forces which may be useful if using social media in the future to help floor and solve crime as there will already be a base of users readily connected to the service. The reason that these websites cannot be used to report crimes is due to the lack of Police man hours which could be spent monitoring these websites.Lothian and Borders Police in Scotland are one of the first forces in the country to actively allow Facebook users to report crimes online through their Made from Crime initiative, launched August 2011 (Cotton, 2011). The site was to catch crimina ls who are living beyond their means using the riposte of crime by allowing anonymous tips through the Facebook page or Crimestoppers Website. Crimestoppers have also launched an application for use on smartphones called TipSumbit to help report crimes in USA through tips or videos directly to the Police (Urbaszewski, 2012). Both of these methods allow the user to remain anonymous which can be a certain appeal for witnesses. However, with both communications being relatively new to the field, there is limited monitoring by the Police so tips sent in may not be read and acted upon instantly, which could lead to the information becoming out of date. This could be counteracted by employing more employees within the police in UK, however, due to government budget cuts the police force has been declining for the last fit of social classs with over 24,000 police jobs being lost since the general elections (Burns-Murdoch, 2012). For an application or website such as these to work effic iently a evidentiary amount of money would needed to be invested into it for it to have a see to succeed. The current economic situation in this country is one of many reasons why this im conjure upment in inform crimes is elapsering at a muffled pace and has not taken off nationwide.Leveson doubtIn 2012, the Leveson Inquiry was brought about after there were breaches in the privacy of both celebrities and the general public which warranted the investigation into the media and how it acted. It recommended a new independent body to command the press. Although this is regarding the current press, which is mainly newspapers, similar findings can be applied to social media as news is slowly moving into online media including social media so the pass from Leveson can be used for the data provided on social media websites.Leveson (2012) concludes that there have been too many times when, chasing the story, parts of the press have acted as if its own code, which it wrote, simply di d not exist. This could be used to notice the Police using social media to support investigations it undertakes when look for evidence online. The Police have not been trained to use it, nor is the data valid so using it would be a breach of ethics. The information, although has been proved useful in certain cases, if its not obvious, could lead to the Police jumping the bandwagon and following a suspect who may not be the person they are looking for or hold an individual responsible for a crime they did not commit if the information they have provided online was misinterpreted. As all data inputted through social media is self-edited, it may not be truthful, so should not be taken for granted. This is where using social media to help solve or actualise crimes is unreliable due to the freedom people have with what they post and upload to these websites.Self PolicingThe general public has tried to use social media itself to self-promote crimes to help solve them. This has worked w ell through certain websites, mainly twitter, to drum up publicity for the crime to solve it. The majority of cases where this has worked are when a court has been stolen, such as Charley, a 12 week old set on who was stolen and found through twitter due to friends and family tweeting about the puppy to drum up interest (BBC, 2012). Through the combined effort of conversation online and people talking about the missing dog offline, Charley was discovered. This may not have happened, or at least not as quickly, if the attention had not been brought to the front of the publics mind through twitter. Small firms, such as one in Erie, Pennsylvania, have created their own Facebook sites to publicise lost duckys with their owners and have achieved a 50% success rate with users of the site (Van Rheenen, 2012). This could prove to be more effective than twitter as the focus of the website is on missing pets, however, visitors may not go onto the website if they have not lost a pet themsel ves. The rescue efforts would then be limited to active users of the website.Certain companies have also tried to rally consumers at large events to help report crimes as they occur during the affair. This occurred at Download Festival 2010 where the promoters encouraged fiesta goers to tweet through a monitored twitter stream any problems occurring at the festival. There was a 41% reduction in crime compared to the year before (BBC, 2010a). Due to decrease in crime at this large event, other festival organisers could use this as it seemed to have a unspoilt effect on the customers by improving their safety.Controversial Facebook PagesAs mentioned earlier, one major problem with the Police using social media to report or help solve crime is the lack of funding to use it as a reliable resource set up and monitored through the Police. This has led to groups of individuals creating Facebook groups to warn others of the problems within their local communities. The most publicised case of its kind was in Northern Ireland where Keeping our Kids safe from Predators was launched. At first it was used by parents to alert others about paedophiles in the local area which has been brought about more through Sarahs Law, which is a Child Sex Offender revealing Scheme which allows parents to ask the Police whether or not a person with access to their child is a sex offender (BBC, 2010b). This does not provide as much information as Megans Law in the States which also provides parents with information such as addresses of paedophiles. The information provided through this should be piddlen to the parents who ask for it and not passed on to others.Information obtained through this has been do public on Facebook pages which have led to convicted criminals being the centre of aversion from the wider community. One unnamed offender claimed the content found on the website was a breech to his pay for privacy which led to degrading treatment through the site. This in turn le d to actions against him in the real world which jeopardised his safety. This individual was convicted and charged for his crimes over 20 years ago and believed he had served his time however the parents within the community did not and deemed him still to be a danger to society, which escalated into the abuse online. A judge ruled that the man was within his rights to a private life, regardless of past convictions and the page was shut down within 72 hours (Silverman, 2012), however follow up pages have been set up but not to the extent of the original one.The results from this case have produced an on-going discussion to whether or not parents should be allowed to publicise information they have obtained to protect local children. However, this case has confirmed that criminals have a right to privacy, no matter how long ago they were convicted. Nevertheless, from this, there could be a way for parents to be able to obtain the information, such as maps of areas (large plenty not to be able to identify individuals from it) to show if they live in a high risk area of criminals. This could give parents peace of mind without having to obtain sensitive information from the Police. Though, the Police have limited resources so producing and maintaining a system such as this would be unfeasible at the moment. Funding could become available if there was an increased demand for this and if they could prove it would be worthwhile for the communities exposing the privacy of past criminals.The London RiotsIn spend 2011, riots broke out across the country after starting in London. There was a large presence online with starting and organising riots, but also with helping to clean up after the riot. Crimestoppers, a crime armed combat charity, reported a large increase in twitter following during the riot which it used to promote ways to report crimes or posted pictures of crimes happening in the local areas to help the Police with their investigations (Hall, 2012). The y regarded social media as a quick effective way to contact the public to give information about the rioters including where to avoid. Additionally, the Metropolitan Police also set up a Flickr site after the riots to try and catch criminals who were still at large (London Disorder Haringey, 2012). Although they do not promote this, it is still get on the internet for anyone to use and to come forward with any additional information they have.After the riots, Crimestoppers set up several online ways it can provide information to the public as well as receive tips about crimes through their website. A sizable network of followers on Twitter and their website means that if a large scale crime was to occur again, Crimestoppers would be well equipped to provide information to the public and would belike gain tips quicker and in greater numbers. Although Crimestoppers only allows crimes not of an urgent nature to be reported on their website, if the demand increased for account crim es online, more employees could be used to monitor the tips on the website which would be answered quicker.RecommendationsFrom addressing the points within this report, it is clear that the general public needs to be educated with regards to social media. As it is a relatively new technology, the rules and regulations regarding this are being modified everyday when a new problem arises. A school in Somerset has started to address problems within social media by teaching students about it as part of the curriculum (Walker, 2012). This will assist new users of the dangers of piece of music information online and who is able to see it. This should be introduced nationwide as lessons such as this are invaluable for children as it can open their look to the dangers of what they post online.Using social media as a way of reporting crimes is a difficult issue to address. Due to the lack of funding within the Police which is constantly being cut by the government and charities such as Cri mestoppers relying solely on money raised for the website to still operate, the chances of a network being set up and managed on a 24 hour basis may not happen within the coterminous few years. However, using social media to monitor criminals and crime taking place would be a cheaper way to fight crime as no infrastructure would need to be set up as they would use the established social networks. Training would need to be undertaken by the officers who would be responsible for monitoring to avoid such blunders as shown by the Lothian and Borders Police in Scotland (Enoch, 2012) where Police Officers were seen befriending criminals. Strict budget cuts are forever put within the Police, so finding the money and time for officers training for social media may prove costly and ineffective in the long run. An substitute(a) way could be to hire an external online research company as they would have greater knowledge on the subject. This could be cheaper than in kinfolk but as the Poli ce need to be secure with all information obtained and used within investigations, this may not be a suitable solution. However, until the issue of cost is overcome within the Police, then the recommendations cannot become a reality.
Cellular and busy communications TechnologyLUCAS A. EPPARD score OF GSMAt the 1982 Conference of European Post and Tele discourses (CEPT), the standardization body, Groupe Speciale Mobile, was created to start work on a single European standard. The name of this standard was later changed to orbicular governance for Mobile communication theory (GSM). GSM is a wide bea piano tuner receiver communication theory constitution that usages digital communicate transmission to provide piece, information, and mul clock timedia dust of rules communication serve ups.1 A GSM system manages the communication between diligent teleph bingles, communicate jerks, and interconnecting change by reversal systems. The development of the GSM particularation began later that year, with the first commercial GSM system later being deployed in 1991. By 2004, there were over a billion GSM contributors in more than 205 countries and territories across the globe.2Before the GSM system was implemented, most countries utilise cubicleular systems that were very much in conflict with each other(a). closely energetic telephones could solely function on their specific cellular internet, and as a result many customers could non travel to neighboring countries and unflustered expect service. With various types of systems only serving exclusive groups of people, the large-scale turnout necessary to manufacture low-cost subscriber equipment was not practical. This resulted in mettle well-nigh equipment costs and systems were not very successful in the open market.In 1990, the first phase of GSM specifications was finalized. This included basic voice and entropy services.3 some the same time, the initial efforts were made to modify the GSM specification to offer service at the 1800 megacycle per bite frequence range. DCS 1800, which the standard is now known as, is employ for the Personal Communications Ne dickensrk (PCN).4 Since that time, Phase 2 of the GSM and DCS 1800 specifications has been completed. In this phase, raise info transfer capabilities and advanced nobble messages services were added. 5GSM RADIOGSM intercommunicatecommunication is a radiocommunication communication system that divides geographic atomic number 18as into downcast radio areas (cells) that are interconnected with each other.6 Each of the coverage areas has one or more transmitters and receivers that converse with cellular passelsets in its designated area. GSM radio systems function in a particular absolute relative frequency solidification or lots that have been charge to the system. Dep closureing on the frequency plan, system administrators may choose to recycle specific radio channels at different cell sites. Through a combi nation of either TDMA or FDMA, subscribers share each radio channel. A GSM radio channel is 200 kHz wide and is further divided up into frames that are made up of eight time slots. Each cell site may contain several channels which are shared by as many as 8 to 16 voice users per radio channel.TDMATime instalment dual access (TDMA) is a method of sacramental manduction one radio channel by means of the division of time slots which are then subsequently allocated among multiple users of that radio channel.7 A mobile radio is assigned a particular time and position on a channel when it communicates with a TDMA system. Through this process, it is possible for a TDMA system to allow multiple users to operate on a single radio channel by the use of separate time slots. TDMA systems therefore set off their capacity to serve several users with a limited number of radio channels. GSM employs time division multiplexing (TDM) to distribute one modulated carrier frequency radio wave carcass between 16 half rate or 8 full rate phone calls.8 Because of this, a clear trait is often made between a communication channel and a radio carrier in many publications pertaining to GSM.DUPLEX CHANNELS duplex c ommunication is the transmission of voice and/or info auspicates that allows simultaneous 2-way communication.9 In cast for duplex communication to occur on analog systems, a separate voice trail must be assigned to some(prenominal) a transmitter and frequency. This method of employ two frequencies for duplex communication is called frequency division duplex (FDD).10 Time division duplex (TDD) is some other technique that shag be used for duplex communication. Time sharing allows two gubbinss to achieve two way communications through TDD. sympathetic to how a walkie-talkie works one device transmits trance some other(prenominal) receives. Once the original transmission is complete, the second device stimulates the transmitter temporary hookup the first becomes the receiver. This process then constantly repeats itself so that the selective information seems to lam in both(prenominal) directions instantaneously.The GSM system utilizes both FDD and TDD communication. On e frequency is used fleck the handset communicates with the cell tower, while the sour communication from the tower to the handset uses the other frequency.11 However, TDD is also used in the GSM system while the transmitter and receiver talk at different times. This time counterpoise between the transmission and reception also helps to streamline the design of the handset. The radio frequency judicial disengagement between the forward (downlink) and reverse (uplink) frequencies differs between the frequency draws. As a general rule, the separation must be greater between the forward and reverse channels at the higher frequencies. For instance, the frequency separation in the GSM 900megahertz system is 45 MHz while the separation is 95 MHz for PCN. Finally, the GSM PCS 1900 MHz system has a frequency separation of 80 MHz.12VOICE SERVICES part service is a form of communication service in which multiple users rear transmit breeding over the voice frequency band via a communic ation interlock.13 Voice service consists of the initiation of sessions between at least two users which allows for the very time, or near real time, transmission of voice levels between those users. A GSM network delivers numerous types of digital voice services. A number of factors shadower affect the quality of voice service on a GSM system. However, through the use of several pellucid forms of rescue compression a GSM system can dynamically adjust the voice quality.14 Each service provider has the ability to choose and manage which speed compression process (voice coding) their network utilizes. Service providers can increase the amount of users that they provide service to through the use of voice coders that possess higher speech compression rates. However, this comes at the cost of delivering a more degraded signal to each user. overly basic voice services, the GSM system can also provide both group and break up voice services.DATA SERVICESA info service is a communi cation service that transmits information between two or more devices. By means of a communication network, data services can be delivered either inside or impertinent of the audio frequency band. Data service consists of the creation of physical and tenacious communication sessions between two or more users. This allows for the non-real time or near-real time transfer of data type signals between users.15However, a data modem has to be used in the event that a signal is broadcast on a non-digital channel. The data modem is needed to translate the signal into tones that can be sent in the audio frequency band. GSM voice profession channels cannot send or receive analog modem data because the speech coder utilized by the system is only assailable of compression voice signals.16 Medium speed mail boat data and low-speed circuit switched data are the two services provided in a GSM system. Circuit switched data is a communication process that maintains a committed communications p ath between two devices.17 This can be accomplished no yield the amount of data being sent between the devices. This provides sole use of the circuit to the communications equipment employing it regardless of whether or not the circuit is idle. In prepare to create a circuit-switched data connection, the dispense must be sent before a connection path is established. Once this occurs, data is continually transmitted utilise this path until it is disconnected by orison from either the sender or receiver.18Packet switched data service is the other utilized by a GSM system. Through the division of data into small packets, information can be transferred between two points. In order to reconstruct the original data, the packets are routed through the network and recombined at the receiving end. This can be achieved because the destination address is contained within each person packet. So no matter which route the packets take through the network they allow end up at the same desti nation. The GSM system uses general packet radio service (GPRS) to provide its packet data service. In using the GPRS system, new gateways and packet control channels are added to a GSM system. It is serious to note that GPRS is a type of packet-switched data service that is known as always-on. This means that when a device is turned on it acquires an IP address that it needs in order to communicate with the network.19CDMACode Division seven-fold Access (CDMA) is a digital cellular radio system presently in use in more than 35 countries around the world.20 It is a form of dot spectrum communications in which a radio signal is transmitted over a dedicated channel as a much wider signal than is traditionally necessary. By using a signal with a wider than normal bandwidth, interference from other users on the same share of bandwidth is minimized. This permits several users to share the radio channel at the same time. move into in two basic forms frequency hopping and code divisio n.21 Frequency hopping multiple access (FHMA) is an access applied science in which mobile radios or cellular handsets share radio channels by breaking their transmissions down into forgetful bursts over a number of frequencies. A device transmits for a short period of time on one frequency, and then hops to another radio frequency to continue its transmission.CDMA allows a number of users to share a single radio channel frequency simultaneously by designating a unique code sequence to each mobile radio. By naming a particular hop pattern to each mobile device collisions can be minimized. Even if collisions do occur randomly only a small amount of data may be lost. Furthermore, fallacy detection and correction methods can be implemented in order to fix the data that was lost.22 Compared to previous narrowband tuner systems, CDMA technology is a wideband spread spectrum system. It is important to note that the features, services and requirements for CDMA were developed by standa rds organizations using many pre-existing technologies. For this reason, CDMA is considered a second multiplication (2G) cellular system.HISTORY OF CDMAThe growth of CDMA technology began in the fall in States in 1989 as a result of the CTIA next cellular generation technology requirements.23 In family line of the previous year the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA) presented the User mathematical operation Requirements (UPR) for the next generation of wireless service. In 1989 the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) designated TDMA as the radio larboard standard. Later that year QUALCOMM was able to build a CDMA system that met the CTIA requirements. This was achieved largely through the support of mobile telephone manufacturers and carriers, as well as new infra mental synthesis equipment.24 QUALCOMM and its associates presented the results of their field trials at the end of 1991. This pushed the CTIA Board of Directors to implement a resoluti on which requested TIA to structurally organize new developments from wideband systems. By mid-1993 TIA had voted on and recognized IS-95 as the CDMA transmit interface standard radio specifications. The systems which were paperd on the IS-95 standard became known as cdmaOne systems.25 In 1995 the first commercial CDMA network was implemented in Hong Kong.CDMA RADIOCDMA is the fasted growing technology in wireless communications. A CDMA network consists of the same basic components as other wireless systems. This includes a mobile station, rear end station, a controller, and finally a switching network. In CDMA, a carrier frequency is separated into 64 individual channels through the use of codes. Each channel transmits the data associated with a separate and unique conversation in digitally coded form.26 In some cases an independently coded channel transmits signals related to the start of a connection. In spread spectrum systems like CDMA, one carrier holds multiple channels. This can sometimes make it to confusion when discussing CDMA with someone who is familiar with the older analog frequency division multiplex (FDM) systems. With older FDM systems a channel is synonymous with a carrier. hence each pair of carrier frequencies was able to carry only one conversation.27All CDMA networks use a specific radio frequency band for signals from the base transmitter to the mobile receiver and a second distinct radio frequency band for the signals from the mobile transmitter to the base receiver.28 CDMA technology can be used in either the existing 800 MHz cellular frequency band or the 1900 MHz personal communications service (PCS) band. CDMA has the ability to function in the same radio spectrum allotment as older cellular systems when it is being used on those networks. The mobile station transmit frequency band is between 824-849 MHz, while the base station transmit frequency ranges from 869-894 MHz.29 When in use in the 800 MHz band, CDMA maintains a 45 MHz separation between the forward and reverse channels. Some radio carrier frequencies are defined for CDMA use in its cellular network. However, not all of these frequencies are used for CDMA transmission. This is because the FCC requires that analog radio transmission (AMPS) continue to operate.CDMA operation is also compliant with the frequency structure of the PCS band. The separation of the forward and reverse channels is 80 MHz while operating on this band. The mobile station transmit frequency band is between 1850-1909 MHz while the base station transmit frequency band ranges from 1930-1989 MHz.30 Some CDMA systems operate in the Personal Communications System (PCS) frequency bands. PCS is mostly found in North America on the 1900 MHz frequency band, where it is known as PCS-1900. Due to the commonality of the base band signals, some manufacturers make dual band CDMA handsets that are capable of operating on both the 800 MHz and 1900 MHz bands.31 If a subscribers handset is manufactured to allow dual frequency band operation it is possible to obtain service on either or both systems. However, this can only be achieved if the CDMA networks in the region are properly linked. As CDMA moved further towards a third generation technology, the CDMA2000 arose as the next level of the IS-95 standard.3G TECHNOLOGIESThe term first generation system (1G) is most commonly used in regards to older analog cellular systems. These analog systems eventually gave way to the newer digital second generation systems (2G) that are popular today. 2G systems in use today include the GSM and cdmaOne systems previously mentioned in this paper as well as the US-TDMA and PDC systems.32 These systems allowed voice communications to go wireless in most of the industrialized world and have drastically increased mobile handset functions. Subscribers have come to expect their cellular networks to provide them with text messaging and data access capabilities. In the United States it is almost unheard of now for a network provider to not offer data services in excess of 500 MB if not at least 1GB per month. The abundance of 2G technologies spurred the demand for even greater services.At the 1992 World Administrative radio Conference (WARC) of the ITU (International Telecommunications Union), member nation delegates began to investigate the frequencies that would be available for future expansion of 3G systems.33 The International Mobile Telecommunications System 2000 (IMT-2000) was created as a result of this meeting. It is important to note that IMT-2000 is often used interchangeably with Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). UMTS defined a wireless communication system that operates in the 2GHz frequency band.34 The primary bearing of IMT-2000 standard was the development of a single universal air interface that was built upon pre-existing infrastructure. This would help to keep start-up costs low and potentially allow international roaming. The T hird Generation Partnership Program (3GPP) was created to consecrate this process.It became evident early on that a single air interface would be nearly impossible to attain so a second committee was formed to oversee the process of bringing other air interfaces up to the IMT-2000 standard. A second partnership program was established to check out this would occur and the 3GPP2 was born. The two partnership programs are essentially drawn along the fault lines of GSM and CDMA. UMTS, which is often used synonymously with Wideband CDMA or WCDMA, has become the standard for GSM 3G technologies and falls under the umbrella of 3GPP1. The 3GPP2 on the other hand focuses on the CDMA2000 standard.35BIBLIOGRAPHYArokiamary, V. J. (2009). Cellular and Mobile Communications. Pune, India Technical Publications Pune.Balston. D.M. and Macario, R.V. (1993). Cellular Radio Systems. Norwood, mama Artech House.Gibson, J. (ed) (1999). The Mobile Communications Handbook, 2nd ed. Dallas, Texas CRC Pres s LLC.Haddon, L. and Green N. (2009). Mobile Communications An Introduction to newfangled Media. recent York Berg.Harte, L. et.al. (1999). CDMA IS-95 for Cellular and PCS Technology, Economics and Services. New York McRaw-Hill.Holma, Harri, and Antti Toskala (eds). (2002) WCDMA for UMTS Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications, 2nd ed. John Wiley Sons.Holtzman, J. M. and Zorzi, M. (2002). Advances in Wireless Communications. New York Kluwer Academic Publishers.Lee, W. C. Y. (2006) Wireless and Cellular Telecommunications, 3rd ed. New York McGraw Hill Professional.Mouly, M. and Pautet, M. (1992). The GSM System for Mobile Communications. Palaiseau, France Telecom Publishing .Poole, I. (2006). Cellular Communications Explained From Basics to 3G. Oxford Elsevier Ltd.Shing-Fong Su. (2007). The UMTS Air-Interface in RF Engineering Design and Operation of UMTS Networks. New York McGraw-Hill Professional.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
The Ebola Virus10 out of 10 people infected with it will weary with die with it.It is airborne.It is 100 times more contagious than help.It has no k this instantn origin, inoculation or cure.It kills you in such a way that even super trained professionals getsick from s female genitalstily hearing near the effects.It is trustworthy and it has dineroed its attack on the human race.Mrs. Landau and fellow classmates. The symptoms I have just described toyou are real. These are symptoms to a real and fatal computer virus. The viruss predict isEbola and it has started its burn into our society. Like the AIDS virus, nonhingreally is known about it except its effect on people. Like the AIDS virus, thereis no cure, treatment or vaccination. Unlike the AIDS virus which can purport up to8 to 10 years to kill you, this virus can take as little as to 8 to 10 hours to final result fatally. It starts off with a fever and symptoms of the flu. Then themuscles in your face blocking movin g freezing your face into a mask. Just in advancedeath, you start to bleed from every opening in your body starting from your honker and mouth to your gums. Your internal organs liquefy and you vomit them up.In reality, the virus has attempted to turn its host into a virus. You are deadbefore you have even started to show signs of this virus. It is believed that itis some sort of mutated form of AIDS because it started in the original spot asAIDS did, Kinshasa and moved along the highway ripping its way through NorthernAfrica. As of now there are an estimated 150 000 people who have died from thisvirus. This figure is in Africa alone. In October 1989, monkeys were dying bythe hundreds in a building 2 miles away from the White House. They werediagnosed as dying from Ebola. Except that this strain of Ebola was not harmfulto humans. It only killed monkeys. If a virus can change its metabolism into avirus which only kills monkeys, it could change its metabolism into a viruswhich only kills people.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
king capital of Seychelles was born in 1819 and she died in 1901. She was queen of the United landed estate of large Britain and Ireland (1837-1901) and empress of India (1876-1901). Queen Victoria was born Alexandrina Victoria on whitethorn 24, 1819, in Kensington Palace, London. Victorias mother was Victoria Mary Louisa, daughter of the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Her father was Edward Augustus, duke of Kent and Strathern, the quaternate son of George III and youngest brother of George IV and William IV, they were kings of Great Britain. Because William IV had no legal children, his niece Victoria became inheritor apparent to the British crown upon his summation in 1830. On June 20, 1837, with the expiration of William IV. Victoria became queen at the get along with of 18.Early in her power Victoria developed a good concern with goings on of state, guided by her first prime minister, William Lamb, second Viscount Melbourne. Melbourne was leader of that wing of the Whig Pa rty that later became known as the tolerant Party. He exercised a immovably progressive command on the policy-making thinking of the sovereign.MarriageIn 1840 Victoria married her first cousin, Albert, rule of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who she had known for about four years. Although this was a wedlock of state, it was a highly extravagant and prosperous one, and Victoria was devoted to her family responsibilities. The first of their nine children was Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise, later queen of Germany. Their first son, Albert Edward, prince of Wales and later monarch of Great Britain as Edward VII, was born in 1841. When the cautious Prince Albert persuaded her that Liberal policy jeopardized the sexual climax of the Crown, the queen began to lose her eagerness for the party. After 1841, when the Melbourne government fell and Sir Robert pl low became prime minister, Victoria was an enthusiastic supporter of the Conservative Party. Also under Alberts influence, she began to interrog ation the tradition that restricted the British ruling to an advisory part. In 1850 she challenged the command of Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, alien secretary in the Whig government that had been in command since 1846. Her post was that the sovereign should at least(prenominal) be consulted on different policy. Palmerston, independent and self-assertive, disregarded the request. Their conflict reached a crucial period in 1851, when the prime minister, Lord John Russell, who was overly unhappy with Palmerstons elective methods, removed him from the foreign office.
Foucault describes in the carceral archipelago and how it transported the technique from the penal institution to the entire accessible body on pg. 298 of the text in relation to how technologies, powers and fits were connected in a series of prisons, institutions, and other organizations that governed or directed how social norms, punishments and regulations were administered. The archipelago referred to a collection of islands, which show relationships and structural similarities, as well as differences. Foucault uses Mettray as an example to show the emergences of more formalized anatomical structure or responsibility as we could term it today with examples of power-knowledge over idiosyncratics. Foucault describes Mettray as the most corrective form at its most extreme, explaining that the models in which are concentrated totally the coercive technologies of our look (p. 293). The prison was successful because it structured prisoners through the processes of disciplin e and curb. The prison showed that it had the capabilities to transform its functionality to applications and technologies other than the carceral (punitive), such as hospitals, schools, and other popular administrations by making the power and knowledge that is held over individuals normal. Its systems, because they were so rough-and-ready were not destined to remain exclusively to the punitive environment. The technology that they enveloped was extremely useful, and as a result, discipline and structure have been profoundly potent in the development of social norms and behaviors in societies. In modern society, the structure that was present in the carceral environment can be seen in roughly all systems and organizational structures from federal, state... ...hich in turn is intended to normalize the individuals behavior. In the application, map my walk, Foucault would view the process of recording and share-out results with peers through electronic communicatio n also as the process of examination. with the process of sharing information and gathering results and responses, the individuals behavior becomes normalized through the settle practice not only being judged both indirectly and directly by their peers, but also by judging themselves through their progress and/or failures. Both are essentially control through observational techniques. It is interesting because they coincide with the pressure that women place on themselves to manifest control over their bodies, both internally and externally. It is similar to a panoptic environment, where the woman monitors her own outcomes. Word Count 234
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Discipline in Childhood Children ask freedom to grow and to learn, but they impart non thrive on unlimited freedom. The aim of discipline is to set conditionable limits which protect pincerren from terms and apprise them what is safe and what is not. If babyren are to grow up into responsible, conscientious, and dependable adults, they must learn the social, moral, and ethical standards that are considered acceptable in our society. They must besides learn to respect the rights and property of others. Children brought up without discipline may plump selfish, greedy, dishonest, unpopular, uncooperative and insecure. Un develop children constantly demand attention. They may be uncivil or disrespectful to others. Some are destructive, aggressive, and accident prone. A child allowed to disobey without punishment is unlikely to develop much respect for uprightness as he grows older. Although it is impossible to define rules for discipline that ar e prehend for every situation, some principles are well established. * Your child needs your have a go at it more than anything else. * You should use discipline to teach your child. * You should not discipline your child before he or she is old enough to attend the reason for the punishment. * You should not punish your child for behavior that is part of normal development, such(prenominal) as thumb sucking, speech development, or accidents that occur during toilet training. * You should not punish your child for anything that is accidental. * Both parents should be consistent in the application of discipline. * You should explain to your child, in language ... ... has been forgiven. For a time-out to be trenchant there must excessively be time-in. To summaries this piece of work this shows us that children cant be given unlimited freedom because they will run wild, and this also shows that children require your love and support in intent not only as a child but also when they are growing up. This also shows us that children who are non disciplined tend to be Greedy, dishonest, selfish etc these children also seem to get into more trouble than children who receive more love and support during their childhood. It also says that you should NOT use discipline on children that are too young to understand what is going on, due to this may effect their mental development. This also shows us that time out is one of the best disciplines in the way to teach a child to stop misbehaving.
Child maltreatment takes on many tiers and electric razor except is the most common. Studies have found that child neglect can be more detrimental to learning than physiological make fun (Colvert, E., Rutter, M., Kreppner, J., Beckett, C., Castle, J., Groothues, C. & Sonuga-Barke, 2008). Despite this fact, neglect is the least commonly reported form of maltreatment, as it does not leave bruises and marks like physical abuse (DiPanfilis, D., 2006). Neglect during infancy has been found to affect all aspects of development physical, cognitive, and psychosocial (Hawley, T., Gunner, M., 2000). This composing depart examine the effects neglect has on specific areas of cognitive functioning.According to Jean Piaget we all go through stages of cognitive development that aid us in constructing our knowledge of the world. During infancy we are in Piagets sensorimotor stage where we begin our construction of the world by coordinating what we think, touch, smell and taste with how we mo ve (Santrock, J., 2011). When an infant is not granted the opportunity to explore their world they are not able to onward motion through the sensorimotor phase effectively. Various factors may lead to the shy(predicate) progression through the sensorimotor stage but this musical theme will focus specifically on neglect. Neglect is difficult to define in terms of a set of behaviors that are synonymous with neglect because what is considered neglect varies based on the age and developmental level of the child. For the purpose of this paper neglect will be defined as the denial of comme il faut physical, educational, emotional and moral attention and care (DiPanfilis, D., 2006). In 2008 Child antifertility Services received 3.3 million reports of child maltreatment and seventy-one share of them we... ...uncil on the Developing Child, & National Forum on Early childhood Policy and Programs. (2011). Building the Brains Air Traffic inhibit System How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function. Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. Retrieved from http//developingchild.harvard.edu/8. Eigsti, I., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The impact of child maltreatment on expressive syntax at 60 months. Developmental Science, 7(1), 88-102. doi10.1111/j.1467-7687.2004.00325.x 9. Majer, M., Nater, U. M., Lin, J.-M. S., Capuron, L., & Reeves, W. C. (2010). connecter of Childhood Trauma with Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults A Pilot Study. BMC Neurology. Retrieved from http//web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/ pdfviewer?sid=95e34d47-cde9-4f93-b9ba-82931731842d%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=25
Monday, March 25, 2019
The Rotten AppleMy mom has al miens told me, If youre eer going to get anywhere in life, you have to make substantially first impressions. Ill spare you the details about the hell holes Id live in and the dead-end jobs described by my mom if I did otherwise. Not a sens of people would think this is a big deal. I mean, making a true first impression is one of the first things parents should be telling their kids to do right? I, however, get the lecture a lot when I was a kid. Heck, my mom called me last night to give me my fix. I seem to be unable to make any sort of good impression with lots of people. This is especially true with t distributivelyers. You had no idea the pang I went through trying to look for a teacher who desire me to write my recommendation. Im not complaining though. I make no drift in trying to leave a good first impression, nor do I ever care for the first impression someone leaves subsequently meeting me. What is a first impression anyway? It is probabl y the sagaciousness a person makes on another based on the way he or she talks and acts in the first meeting. But in a lot of cases, first impressions are made based on the stereotypes, especially racial ones, that person fit in. Wow, you must be genuinely smart.. For most people, this is usually meant as a compliment. And I would take that color as a compliment, if I had, for example, shown whoever said it the proof to a manifold math problem. But when given the comment the first time I meet someone, it means something completely different to me. It means they forgot to say because youre Chinese. Oh, stop complaining Youre in a good stereotype is the frequent response I get when I talk about this with my friends or people in general. Thats about when we would... ...identifies with a stereotype, he is losing a part of his self to the masses. He then tends to act or act accordingly, based on what the stereotype demands of him. He asks himself, What am I suppose to do? as oppo sed to What do I want to do?. That want, I think, is the one answer of how to destroy the concept of stereotype. Still, I find it very ironic that, in a country found on the preservation of individuality and equality, there can be such problems associated with stereotyping and double standards. mayhap, as a country, we are losing sight of the importance and mystique of the individual. Perhaps we are becoming too lazy and impersonal to understand each other for the human that we are, and not just some vague generalization. I am not a nerd, Americanized Chinese immigrant, Weezer-maniac, rebelling teen, overachiever, or crazed sports fan. I am Wang.
La caricatura poltica En sus inicios, la palabra caricatura surgi parity designar el arte de resaltar los rasgos fsicos (principalmente del rostro) de ciertos personajes, en ese sentido, se caracterizaba por su estilo recurrente de representar a los actores con cabezas enormes y dejar de lado (en un segundo plano) el resto del cuerpo. Posteriormente, se le da importancia a las extremidades, puesto que se comprendi que lo kinsico y proxmico aportan significado a la imagen as, por ejemplo, la ropa es un factor importante para representar aspectos relacionados con la cultura. Acto seguido, la caricatura comenz a incursionar en el mbito de la poltica, dejando en un segundo plano el inters por mostrar las desfiguraciones faciales, para impregnarse de un tinte poltico y mordaz con miras a criticar aspectos socio-polticos. En efecto, este ltimo aspecto mencionado es lo que interesa en este trabajo. Puesto que, como ya se haba mencionado, la caricatura poltica es de suma importa ncia dentro de la sociedad colombiana, ya que se constituye como una herramienta por medio de la cual se puede criticar el sistema socio-poltico del pas, sus dirigentes y las acciones polticas que afectan (positiva o negativamente) a la poblacin. En ese orden de ideas, Acevedo (2009) afirma queLa caricatura poltica busca un objetivo distinto mofar, ironizar, fastidiar, burlarse, ridiculizar, decir las cosas a la inversa, distorsionar el sentido original, agredir, construir opinin y destruir simblicamente al oponente. En la caricatura poltica en general, alguien o algo sale daado en su imagen () (p. 35) Al criticar el sistema socio-poltico veridical del pas, la caricatura (re)construye una imagen (en la mayora de los... ...ambin el pensamiento y la accin. Nuestro sistema conceptual ordinario, en trminos del cual pensamos y actuamos, es fundamentalmente de naturaleza metafrica. (p. 39). Entendida as la metfora, el anlisis pareciera que fly se quedara en lo verbal, en lo mon omodal, por lo que se hace necesario recurrir al concepto de metfora multimodal, la cual es definida por Pardo (201243) como expresiones que se construyen a partir de la presencia de uno o ms modos en el dominio de origen, y que en el dominio de llegada son representadas predominantemente en modos sgnicos diferentes y en coexistencia, para producir significado. En ese sentido, la metfora se materializa dentro de la caricatura no solo en lo verbal, sino en la correlacin de varios sistemas sgnicos (o modos semiticos) que dotan de significado a las representaciones que se dan en la caricatura.
Sunday, March 24, 2019
Of Mice and Men is a book about the soci whollyy oppressed and about migrant workers. The workers went through a lot of things in this story. There are many themes in this book, which had to do with them. These themes are violence, nature, bareness and dreams. Out of these themes I think that loneliness was the most all important(predicate). However, all the themes vie a part in the workers lives.A dream is pictures and ideas a somebody has in their mind. Dreams are special to people and show how they feel. George and Lennie were the main characters, who had a dream. George and Lennie have been together for a long time and they talked about their dreams. They both just would like to own a farm with animals and a garden. They outweart want to have anyone bossing them around anymore. They just want to be their own boss and do what they want to do. They want to be able-bodied to run everything their way and no one elses.Violence is a force, which is negatively charged and negati ve. There were a few characters that experienced violence in this book. The main one was Curley. He always likes to pick fights with bigger guys and cause trouble. He also likes to threaten people about them getting close to his wife. another(prenominal) person who caused violence was Lennie. Lennie isnt a violent person he just cant help hurting things. He doesnt mean to cause any of the violence that he puts out. He wouldnt be violent at all if he could just get the hang his strength. Carlson was another person that showed some violence. He kept on move Candy about cleanup position his dog. When he ended up killing Candys dog it didnt even bother him he just did it and went on with his life. constitution is living things like the animals and plants. Nature is a beautiful thing that is world ruined by man. In the book the workers cut down trees and public figure things with it. They dont care about nature at all they just ruin it. The only person that might have desire natur e was Lennie, when he mentioned about living in a cave. lonesomeness is when a person feels isolated on the inside, not really important to anyone. Loneliness is a very big theme in this book. many a(prenominal) of the characters experienced this. This is a very sad thing, which I think no one should have at all.